Tag Archives: Jo Johnson

While you were away – Summer 2015 HE news catch up Part II

Part II of the digest of HE news, since the UK General Election. This is selective, and there is much I have left out. Below – research, quality assurance, student loans and a glimpse into the post-spending review future.

Research

On the research front, we anticipate the Nurse Review of funding of research. This is being done in the context of an a government spending review, and, BIS has hired McKinsey management consultants. Most pundits suspect this will result in severe cuts to the department’s budget, and it seems likely that all the research funding councils will join together in one body, with the goal of simplifying the system.

This makes everybody nervous – science, because they fear constant chipping away at research funding; humanities and social sciences who fear that they will lose out when funding bids are pitted against the greater claim to economic value attributed to science. Bets are off whether the system of ‘dual funding’ will continue – money from the REF AND money from the research councils. Jo Johnson seems to be suggesting it will in his speech earlier in September 2015. We will know the results on 25th November, after the government’s spending review has reported.

One piece of unexpected news came with publication in July of the Wilsdon report which came out against a ‘metric tide’ to replace the current REF methodology. Wilsdon’s team found that metrics such as impact factors of journals and citation counts, may easily be gamed, while, by contrast, peer review continues to hold the trust of academics. And David Sweeney, in charge of the REF at HEFCE, seems to agree.

Quality Assurance

Another messy field at the moment. QAA is nearing the end of its contract with HEFCE as regulator of the HE sector. That means it must enter into competition with another two rivals for the task –HEFCE itself who may seek to bring the work in-house, since they no longer have much say in parcelling out funding, except REF (QR) money. However, the latest intel is that both HEFCE and the REF might be axed by BIS

The other candidate for regulator is the HEA whose shaky future might be sustained by a role in quality assurance. It has been rather enfeebled lately, after a series of funding cuts, and is looking for another role besides dispensing credentials to HE practitioners. If it is looking to take a role in the TEF, though, you’d have thought it might have more information about it (and learning gain) on its website.

As the emphasis shifts from process to outcomes (see previous post on TEF and learning gain), it is difficult to predict how this might end up. Jo Johnson has indicated that he would like QA to be ‘light touch’. In saying this, he is probably mindful of the £5M it costs each year, and a diminishing BIS budget. On the other hand, there is an ideological function that underpins QA, the TEF and the REF, and that is to create winners and losers, and perhaps, to provide a means to ‘exit the market’ for unsuccessful ‘providers’, all camouflaged as ‘valuing teaching’ and ‘putting students at the heart of the system’. A re-vamped regulatory framework offers new ways of realising a more Darwinian platform for competition between universities, as does the removal of student number controls (SNC).

And just to stir the hornets’ nest of competition, the government is keen to encourage more private providers to enter the higher education scene. Indeed their access to degree awarding powers may be speeded up, and their Quality Assurance credentials facilitated. “We are a deregulatory government”, Johnson is quoted as saying.

HEFCE, though,  has been consulting on the future approaches to quality assessment in HE.  One thing is clear – neither HEFCE nor Jo Johnson wish to see an increase in grade inflation (see para79) in order for universities to secure student satisfaction or, through crude output measures, to scale university rankings. There may be a new breed of ‘professionalized’ external examiners in order to curb these tendencies.

Student debt

Student debt is still with us, despite calls to follow Germany in abolishing tuition fees. Additionally, the last budget signalled an end to maintenance loans for students from September 2016, and the threshold for repayment has been frozen, rather than hitched to inflation.

If you need to inform yourself about how student loans work – here is the most authoritative voice on the issue, Andrew McGettigan

Headlines from this piece:

  • New student loans are not covered by the Consumer Credit Act and interest rates can be set at the discretion of the relevant Secretary of State without the need for new legislation.
  • The rate of interest can be at market rates, not at RPI minus 1 percentage point as for the earliest tranche of 1990s student loans (which were protected by the Consumer Credit Act).
  • The repayment threshold can also be varied, even after the loan terms have been agreed by the student borrower. The legislation states as follows

“You must agree to repay your loan in line with the regulations that apply at the time the repayments are due and as they are amended. The regulations may be replaced by later regulations.” (p. 8) [http://andrewmcgettigan.org/student-loans-campaign/]

I find it extraordinary, and unethical, to burden 18 year olds with large debts under such uncertain terms.

And the future?

There is a Spending Review in the offing, and George Osborne has already said that austerity is likely to continue for four more years. Sajid Javid, Secretary of State for BIS, the department which deals with universities, is very keen to implement the full 40% cut, which will have a likely impact on HE funding in view of the fact that this spend dominates the department. Not the least of these worries is the RAB charge (the portion of student borrowing that will not be paid back), which has now escalated to a projected figure of 45% of loans.  Fear of that shortfall is evidently what lies behind government attempts to prod universities into channelling their graduates into high-paying jobs. And universities will be happy to comply if they think there’s a league table position at stake.

Additionally, the release of an evaluation of the REF2014 has been put on hold until after the spending review. 77 HEIs offered feedback on their experience of the REF, ‘impact’, cost and interdisciplinarity. You can find your institutional response archived here.

It is a world of financial insecurity, shifting targets and capricious measures of success. I’m having a hard time planning the next 6 months, never mind a curriculum or a research career. Happy new academic year, everybody.

How not to measure teaching quality and learning gain

I blogged previously about learning gain just after the General Election.

At that point there was not much to go on but a hazy promise in the Conservative manifesto to “introduce a framework to recognise universities offering the highest teaching quality… and require more data to be openly available to potential students so that they can make decisions informed by the career paths of past graduates”.  On July 1st 2015, Jo Johnson added some more details; the teaching REF was intended to be outcomes focussed, in other words, not focussed on the kinds of ‘quality’ processes that universities had perfected over the last 20 years. The Conservative government hoped to devise a test of learning outcomes that, anticipating the skills of the best schemers in universities, would not be open to gaming.

In the Times Higher on 23rd July 2015, Julia King, Vice-Chancellor of Aston University, made this comment about the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF):

First, it needs to measure the right things. It cannot be a superficial extension of the data provided through the Key Information Set, a variant on the Quality Assurance Agency’s higher education review or some rehash of the subject league tables that drive universities to offer higher and higher proportions of firsts and 2:1s.

Too right, and while I don’t agree with all her conclusions, I appreciate her drive to ensure that the TEF is based on “a properly evidenced measure of that quality”.

It was disappointing then, in the same week, to read a guest blog hosted on Wonkhe from Edward Peck, Vice-Chancellor of Nottingham Trent University. The piece started with a critique of the validity of current DLHE (Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education) data, and I became hopeful of a rebuttal of some of the cruder measures of graduate success. However, in the piece, entitled Finding New Ways to Measure Graduate Success, Peck explicitly rejects measures which, while not the sole determinants of teaching quality, might at least impact positively on the student experience. On the list are Staff Student Ratios and spend per student, which he regards as perverse, and rewarding inefficiency. As I read on, disenchantment grew:

“Secondly, the forthcoming availability of HMRC tax data to HESA and the Student Loans Company means that we could use a robust measure where we can select the census point at which we present data on average earnings by university and/or by course. This would not be dissimilar to the approach some rankings take to MBA programmes. With secondary education performance data also being brought into the mix, we have the hope of finding a much needed way to measure added value or learning gain”.

Now, I’m all in favour of looking at learning gain and allowing that to inform improvements to the student experience. I’m not in favour of releasing irrelevant and crude data in a league table. I’m still pondering the author’s logic when he presents graduate salary levels as an indicator of ‘value added’ by universities, and appears to see this as a proxy measure for learning gain. Universities are repositories and generators of research and knowledge, not factories for ‘salary men’. I would have hoped the nation’s vice-chancellors would have challenged those assumptions, not propounded them.

Here are five reasons why the equation of graduate salary, teaching quality and learning gain is unfounded.

  1. The glass floor effect. On July 26th The BBC news lead story was that middle class families are able to prevent their children from sliding down the social scale, regardless of talent. Clearly, then, graduate salaries are more likely to correlate with social class.
  1. The continued existence of a gender pay gap underlines how fanciful it is to assume that a high salary results from ‘value added’ higher education. Have only male graduates received better teaching? Data from the Fawcett Society indicates a pay gap of 19.1%. Admittedly, this figure encompasses pay for all workers, not just graduates, but points about the motherhood penalty, and outright discrimination are still valid, even in universities. Talk of perverse incentives! Would universities accept more white, able-bodied, middle class males onto courses, if they were likely to earn higher salaries?
  1. Economies are not stable. Middle class professionals continue to feel the force of austerity caused by bankers’ irresponsibility. ‘Generation rent’ may never attain the standard of living of their parents, but this has resulted from a failure of the generational compact, not the failure of universities.
  1. Similarly, we cannot predict which subject areas may prove lucrative. Recently, graduates of any discipline who work in finance have received higher salaries, while pay and employability for graduates in IT and bioscience have taken a downturn.
  1. The SBEE (Small Business, Enterprise and Employment Act 2015) has unleashed a huge data salad of graduate earnings, student loan repayment and course/ university attended. . At best, there may be an association between your earnings and your alma mater. This raises the question of construct validity – a notion drilled into all educators – make sure you have the appropriate measure in order to draw conclusions. Association of any set of measures does not indicate causality, so Peck’s suggested metrics are not even valid as proxy measures of learning gain.

Those of us who care about the future of higher education in the UK cannot let these lazy assumptions dominate the agenda of academic institutions. The data points may link up, courtesy of the SBEE, but the logic does not. It would be ironic if we allowed universities, of all places – interrogators of assumptions, busters of myths and challengers of fallacies – to be led by spurious metrics for what will probably turn out to be immeasurable.

teaching quality venn